Gap junction-enriched fractions were prepared from larvae of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens using the NaOH procedure in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors and were analyzed by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting and EM immunocytochemistry. Protease inhibitor fractions contained a 48-kDa protein in addition to the approximately 10 proteins in fractions with and without inhibitors. Three polyclonal antibodies were used as probes for gap junction plaques and proteins: R16, against an approximately 40-kDa candidate gap junction protein from Drosophila melanogaster; R17, against the 40-kDa candidate gap junction protein from H. virescens; and R18AP, an affinity purified antibody against a consensus sequence of N-terminal amino acids 2-21 of the H. virescens 40-kDa protein. R16, R17, and R18AP stain the 40- and 48-kDa proteins, R16 and R18AP stain a 64-kDa protein, and R16 stains an approximately 30-kDa protein in the absence of inhibitors. Inclusion of protease inhibitors had no effect on gap junction ultrastructure. R16 and R17 label gap junction plaques in crude membrane and NaOH fractions, whereas R18AP exhibits only a low level of reactivity with gap junctions in crude membrane fractions and none with gap junctions in NaOH fractions. The results show that the 30-, 40-, 48- and 64-kDa proteins are immunologically related and are associated with gap junctions in H. virescens, the N-terminus of the 40-kDa protein is relatively inaccessible or easily lost, and the 48-kDa protein is protease-sensitive.
Purpose:: To study the effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes by focusing on gap junctions built of connexin-43 (Cx43), which form a functional syncytium allowing communication and control of ionic and metabolic homeostasis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axon.
Methods:: We examined gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) by scrape loading assays in human ONH astrocytes exposed to hydrostatic (HP) or ambient pressure (CP) in vitro. Immunostaining, immunoprecipitation and immunoblots were used to detect Cx43 distribution and phosphorylation in astrocytes exposed to HP with/without EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG1478 and AG82 and MAPK inhibitors U0126, PD98059 and SB203580.
Two h of nerve stimulation at 10 Hz or of elevated spontaneous release in hypertonic solution increased the size of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.'s) and currents at the frog neuromuscular junction, probably by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in a quantum. Increases in quantal size may modulate synaptic transmission. 59ce067264